I am indebted to my friend, Hjalmar Braune, metallurgical engineer of the Mining School at JFilipstad, who has carefully read, corrected and twice reread the manuscript I have also consulted the Swedish official publication, Kommerscollegii berattelse} for 1900 for the data in Table XXIX-A and Fig. XXIX-A. Much information has been taken from ISIndustrie Miniere de la Suede, 1897, by Nordenstrom, and the paper by Akerman in^the Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute for 1898.
Compared with the greater nations, the steel turned out by Sweden is of little importance when measured by tons, but she cannot be omitted from special consideration, on account of her increasing importance, as a source of iron ore, .on account of the ancient prestige of her products, and the care and skill with which that prestige is maintained.
TABLE XXIX-A. Production of Iron and Steel in Sweden in 1900 and 1901; tons.
South 1900. Southeast 1900. Centre 1900. North. 1900. Total 1900. Total 1903.
Coal. 250,000 250,000 320,000
Ore .......... 1,000 1,563,000 1,044,000 2,1308,000 3,678,000
Pig .................. 24,000 503,000 527,000 489,700
Wrought Iron 28,000 165,000 188,000* 191,300
Bessemer Steel .... 91,000 91,000 84,800
Open hearth Steel . 19,000 188,000 207,000 225,200
Total Steel ......... 19000 279,000 298,000 310,000
* The classification of wrought-iron products is imperfect and the figures inaccurate.
The chief characteristic of Sweden in the iron industry is her lack of coal and her supply of forests. It is a safe assertion that had coal existed in Sweden to any extent the manufacture of iron would be far greater, but her steel would never have achieved its present reputation. There are two or three ore beds of exceptional purity, as far as phosphorus is concerned, and the fame of Swedish